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Are motorcycles and other powered two-wheelers really the best vehicles for urban mobility? FEMA’s mobility test will tell you!

For the results of earlier Mobility tests, please visit our library.

Cyprus – Traffic congestion, lack of parking space and exhaust gas pollution have been a permanent problem in recent years in most European countries and more specifically in Cyprus. Public transport, walking and the use of push bikes are being promoted by the European Union, national governments and local councils as the preferred alternative in an attempt to alleviate the problem. On the occasion of the European Week of Sustainable Mobility 2023, the Cypriot Motorcycle Rights Club (CMRC) took part in the FEMA Mobility Test with the aim of highlighting the motorcycle as one of the best modes of transportation. The test took place on a coastal road of Limassol at 9 o’clock in the morning, at a distance of 15.2 kilometers and involved a scooter, a motorcycle, a car, a bus and a bicycle. Participants started at the same point and had the same finish point. Always within the speed limit. The following results were recorded, which we believe clearly shows that using a motorcycle, especially within the city, saves both time and money.

Motorcycle Scooter Car Bicycle Bus
19 minutes 21 minutes 26 minutes 39 minutes 49 minutes
€0.70 fuel costs €0.50 fuel costs €2.00 fuel costs €0 fuel costs €2.50 ticket costs

France 1 – we organized FEMA’s Mobility Test in Bordeaux, along the same route as that of 2017 and 2019. For the first time, we invited the Bordeaux Scooter Association and EDPM (which shares the same values as us for sharing the road) to participate with an electric scooter and a Gyroroue. It’s nice to see young people in their 20s who share the same principles as us, and confirm that we can mobilize them but on one-off actions.

Motorcycle Gyrowheel & moped 50cc Motorscooter Car Bicycle Pedestrian/public transport
27 minutes 28 minutes 33 minutes 39 minutes 49 minutes 61 minutes
Costs not calculated Costs not calculated Costs not calculated Costs not calculated Costs not calculated Costs not calculated

France 2 – Starting point 94 Rue du Dronckaert in Roncq (biker’s residence), destination the Ferret du Nord on the Grand Place de Lille. Four modes of mobility: public transport, bicycle, motorbike, car. Departure at 2:20 p.m. Route: Shortest for bike and fastest for car and motorcycle, cycling 13 km, the cyclist is a seasoned cyclist, car (C4 estate) and motorcycle (R1250r) 13.5 km. Pedestrian: walk-bus-metro-walk. Departure from bus station at 300 m – arrival metro at Place Rihour 100 m from the destination. Parking is available on arrival, paid car parking under the Place du Général de Gaulle, free motorcycle parking spaces at Place Rihour, 100 m from the destination.

Motorcycle Car Bicycle Pedestrian/public transport
25 minutes 30 minutes 35 minutes 58 minutes
Fuel costs €0.87 Fuel €1.77 + €4.30 parking €0.00 €1.58 ticket costs

France 3 – The Strasbourg mobility comparison took place on Tuesday 26/09/2023 at 07:00 with 3 participants (by car, by train & bus and by motorbike).

The defined route was: Departure from the town hall of Molsheim. This choice was made because this point meets the following criteria:

  • Molsheim is located at the mouth of the Bruche valley, from where thousands of Strasbourg workers come every day. Thus, the city is an important communication hub, with the A352 motorway starting in Molsheim providing direct access to Strasbourg and Molsheim station which is an important local railway hub.
  • The town hall is not located in the immediate vicinity of the station and represents a midpoint representative of the distance that a Molsheimer will have to travel from his home to the station.

– Arrival in front of the headquarters of the Grand Est Region, in Wacken. This choice was made because:

  • By being located north of Strasbourg rather than in the south, it has the advantage of being an easy journey for anyone: all of Strasbourg has to be crossed, so the potential for traffic jams is high and it is necessary to resort to multimodality by public transport.
  • The district is home to many company/institutional headquarters (Grand Est Region, Crédit Mutuel, CIC, MMA, European Parliament, etc.) and therefore has many employees on a daily basis.

This test shows that the chosen route is faster by motorcycle than by car or public transport. This observation was expected due to the greater agility and acceleration of the motorcycle compared to the car (the rider did however respect the speed limits and road signs). The motorist arrived at his destination 6 minutes later; The transit user had a travel time of 71 minutes, more than double the travel time of the motorist. The team did not expect such a delay given the implementation of the REME (Réseau Express Métropolitain) and the development of public transport in the Strasbourg metropolis. The explanations are as follows:

  • The relatively small time difference between the motorcyclist and the motorist can be explained by the fluid traffic flow at this time. A delay of a quarter of an hour from the start would have resulted in a larger gap due to the usual greater traffic congestion. This congestion comes intensely, in the space of a few minutes.
  • The public transport user took the 7:18 a.m. TER 830807 train between Molsheim and Strasbourg, which makes 6 intermediate stops for a train duration of 24 minutes. A regular user of this line would probably have left from the town hall of Molsheim a little earlier to be able to take the TER 831709 station at Molsheim station without intermediate stops to Strasbourg where he would arrive 15 minutes later.
  • Similarly, it is possible to envisage that this user takes an EDPM or a bicycle to make the journey between the town hall and the Molsheim station. This journey would then have taken 6 minutes instead of 15 minutes on foot.
Motorcycle Car Pedestrian/public transport
28 minutes 34 minutes 71 minutes
Fuel costs €1.79 Fuel €3.24 €4.10 ticket costs

France 4 – Although European mobility tests have been carried out for quite a few years, this is the first time that the FFMC has organised one in the Alps, but we thought it would be interesting to add the example of a fairly rural town to the data. The meeting was held on Wednesday morning in front of the village hall in Chorges (Hautes-Alpes). We chose this place to allow the comparison with the train, knowing that for a good part of the department and timetables it would not have been possible. We regret the withdrawal of the cyclists and the absence of an electric vehicle, but never mind, at exactly 9 a.m., we set off, Frédéric and Françoise by road (respectively by motorcycle and car) and Marie-Christine on foot, to take the train. The weather is mixed but dry, the traffic is rather fluid and we are only about twenty kilometers from the destination, a lively square in the center of Gap. Unsurprisingly, the bike arrives first, in a good quarter of an hour. More than twenty minutes later, it’s the motorist. If the road was comparable, the traffic once in town and the need to look for a parking space further away wasted a lot of time. Finally, almost an hour after departure, it was the arrival of the public transit user, who also spent more than double the cost of gas for others on tickets. One more example of the great intelligence and efficiency of motorized two-wheelers for suburban travel, even in the countryside! Hopefully next edition we will have more types of vehicles.

Starting point Salle des fêtes, Chorges, arrival point Place de la République, Gap. The distance was 19.1 km.

Motorcycle Car Pedestrian/train
17 minutes 40 minutes 53 minutes
€1.98 fuel costs €1.98 fuel costs €4.40 ticket costs

France 5 – Starting point: Lyon Tourist Office – Place Bellecour, arrival point: Centre Commercial – Ecully Grand Ouest – Chemin Jean Marie Vianney. The distance was 8.5 km.

Motorcycle Car Moped 50cc Pedestrian/train Bicycle
24 minutes 28 minutes 32 minutes 34 minutes 41 minutes
Costs not calculated Costs not calculated Costs not calculated Costs not calculated Costs not calculated

France 6 – FEMA 2023 mobility comparison carried out on Tuesday, September 19, on a work-home journey between the ARENAS business district in Nice (located at the western entrance to Nice, opposite the airport) and the city center of Vence (a town of about 20000 inhabitants located on the heights of the Côte d’Azur). Common departure at 4:30 p.m. in front of the entrance to the Arenas car park (e-bike, motorbikes and car parked next door, bus stop 5 minutes walk). Bus 9 Ligne d’Azur runs every 1/2 hour but some routes (about 1 out of 2) stop in the middle of the route in Cagnes/Mer. We had targeted the 4:55 p.m. bus. The route chosen is the one taken daily by the spouse of one of our Board members, who was therefore able to warn us that the bus often left in advance, which happened!

The car and 1 motorcycle followed the route proposed by the GPS and which partly passes by the A8 with a toll at the Cagnes/Mer exit, the 2nd motorcycle took a route without a motorway, the e-bike followed, when they existed, the cycle paths, a 2nd bike without electric assistance accompanied it to Cagnes sur mer (after that it goes up!). Traffic was not very congested (hence the small gap between the motorcycles and the car).

Starting point: l’Arenas Nice car park, arrival point: l’ Ara Vence car park. The distance was 17 km.

Motorcycle 1 Motorcycle 2 Car Bicycle Pedestrian/bus
23 minutes 30 minutes 32 minutes 60 minutes 70 minutes
€2.40 fuel costs €2.40 fuel costs €2.50 fuel costs €0 fuel costs €1.50 ticket costs

Iceland – In recent years, FEMA together with its member organisations has conducted mobility tests in European cities. These measurements are carried out by the motorcycle associations behind FEMA and are carried out in such a way that different modes of transport are used to travel between pre-determined places and the travel time is measured and an attempt is made, where it is realistic, to compare the travel costs. In the case of BLS, it was decided that the journey would start from Storhofdi 35 (JHM sport) and end at Kronan grocery store in Hafnarfjordur, with a stop at a store in shopping centre in Hafnarfjordur. It was done to make it look like an errand or stopping by the store on the way home from work.

The vehicles were as follows:
1. Car- Nissan Qashqai, driver Þorgerður Guðmundsdóttir
2. Motorcycle – Suzuki Hayabusa, driver Jóhann Óskar Jóhannsson
3. Bicycle – Pedal driven, driver Bjartmar Leósson
4. Electric Scooter-Rental scooter, driver Guðrún Guðmundsdóttir
5. Bus- Yellow, passenger Þórunn Fjóla

The choice of route was free and of course all participants had to obey the rules that apply to general traffic. The group was launched at 15:00 on September 26, 2023. The car was driven along Reykjanesbraut and the moped along Flottamannaleid. Bjartmar cycled through Ellida-river-Walley, Fossvogs- Walley and along Hafnarfjordur road, all on cycle paths. The electric scooter was ridden on footpaths and cycle paths, some of which were closed and/or inaccessible due to construction works through Mjodd, past Smaralind and along easy paths from there to the end point. The bus passenger took a bus on Vesturlandsvegur, but there was a total of 4 buses that had to be used.

As expected, the motorized vehicles were the first, but it was still a little surprising that the motorbike would be a bit longer on the way, but this is mostly explained by the fact that Jóhann chose a longer route, but this was done with traffic congestion in mind; the traffic turned out to be less than expected. Another aspect is that lane splitting or filtering is not allowed in Iceland. If we look at the cost, it is perhaps difficult to generalize there, but still; the bus ticket costs 570 ISK, (EUR 3,85) the rental of electric scooter was 3444 ISK, (EUR 23,45) the bicycle does not need any other fuel than the rider wants to consume. Cars and motorbikes use approx. 1.25 Liters of fuel, so you can expect approx. 375 ISK, (EUR 2,55). The parking was free in all places.

Car Motorcycle Bicycle E-scooter Bus
27 minutes 29 minutes 43 minutes 94 minutes 107 minutes
€2.55 fuel costs €2.55 fuel costs no fuel costs €0 fuel costs €3.85 ticket costs

Ireland – The distance traveled was 18 km.

Motorcycle Bicycle Car Public transport
26 minutes 35 minutes 45 minutes 67 minutes
€1.40 fuel costs €0 fuel costs €2.80 fuel costs €2.00 ticket costs


Italy – On October 4th and 5th the Federazione Motociclistica Italiana (FMI) organized the 2023 Mobility test, the same route, at the same time, in traffic, with different vehicles (car, motorbike, moped, e-bike and a pedestrian on public transport), respecting the road code.

Turin (North of Italy): from Lingotto to Superga, 16,1 km. This was a green test, made with all electrical vehicles. E-motorbike wins without pollution.

The participants started at 14:48 from Via Giordano Bruno 191 (Regional FMI’s headquarter) and arrived at Superga’s Cathedral. Even if this was a mixed urban-non urban route, the result confirms that a motorbike is the more convenient way of transport.

Motorcycle Car E-bike Public transport
25 minutes 36 minutes 60 minutes 90 minutes
€0.80 (less than 3 kw/h) €2.00 fuel costs (6 kw/h) €0.12 (0.4 kw/h) €1.70 ticket costs

Bologna (Center of Italy): at 8.30 am five FMI participants started, with a motorbike, a moped, a bicycle, a car and the last one by public transport. They started at Piazzale di S. Michele in Bosco. Their final destination was Via Trattati Comunitari Europei 7, CONI and FMI’s headquarter in Bologna.

Results demonstrate how it is convenient to move by powered two-wheelers in Bologna, which develops from the center in an external diameter of 20 kilometers, surrounded by congestioned boulevards, especially in working days.

Moped 50cc Motorcycle Car Bicycle Public transport
25 minutes 29 minutes 43 minutes 47 minutes 70 minutes
€0.80 fuel costs €1.00 fuel costs €2.50 fuel costs + €2.50 parking €0 fuel costs €2.00 ticket costs

Sweden -The results from the Swedish Mobility Test.

Motorcycles and mopeds are part of the solution to the growing cities’ congestion problems and a very smart way to commute to work and school. This is again demonstrated by commuter tests carried out by SMC in collaboration with the Federation of European Motorcyclists’ Associations. Since 2014, FEMA’s member organizations have carried out four commuter tests in major European cities. Now it was time again. The question behind the commuter test is, in a nutshell: Are motorcycles and other motorized two-wheelers really the best vehicles for city traffic? SMC conducted two tests during October, in Gothenburg and Stockholm. The plan was that three people started at the same time and transported themselves between two addresses, which had to symbolize a typical commuting distance. One drove a car, one took the bike and the third took public transports. Of course, the drivers kept to the current speed limits.

In Stockholm, the gang started on Tuesday morning at 07:30 from Vinterbrinksvägen 29, in Saltsjöbaden. The destination was to go to Tegeluddsvägen in Stockholm, a distance of 23.5 kilometers. Johan Ström took the public transports in a time of 63 minutes, Elisabeth Granqvist drove a car which took 40 minutes and Jesper Christensen drove a motorcycle and arrived at the finish line after 27 minutes. “With my motorcycle I arrived several cups of coffee before my colleagues, and in a significantly better mood and with more money in my wallet. Undoubtedly, the motorcycle is the ultimate vehicle, also for work commuting from the suburbs into the city. Nacka Municipality, which allows MC’s in the bus lane, I directly nominate for SMC’s ‘Well thought out’ award”, says Jesper Christensen, SMC’s general secretary.

Motorcycle Car Public transport
27 minutes 40 minutes 63 minutes
€2.16 fuel costs €9.09 fuel and toll costs €3.37 ticket costs

In Gothenburg, the tests were carried out by representatives from SMC Västra Götaland; Mikael Lundquist, Peter Brevell and Susanne Heikkinen. The trio started at 14:50 from Skånegatan 3 in central Gothenburg to get to Turkosgatan 33 in Västra Frölunda. A distance of just over 15 kilometers. Peter was riding and had the opportunity to drive on the inside of the highway to avoid the worst queues and had motorbike parking close to the finish line. Travel time 15 minutes. Susanne drove the car and went to the garage next to Skånegatan. Travel time 29 minutes. Mikael made it 300 meters to the tram stop, waited four minutes for the tram and walked 600 meters to the destination. Travel time 44 minutes.

In addition to time, the motorcyclist also saves money by avoiding congestion charges, gets a lower fuel cost and in some places free motorcycle parking. Another advantage is that MC’s and mopeds can drive in all environmental zones, regardless of fuel. Even in the strictest environmental zone class 3. Previous tests have also shown advantages in choosing MC’s and mopeds in the cities on stretches where public transport does not work and where it is too far to cycle or walk.

Motorcycle Car Public transport
15 minutes 29 minutes 44 minutes


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